Architecture – spatial and material design models
The timing of the Level of Development (LOD) required for elements(s) or systems(s) is dependent entirely upon the procurement strategy used for the project, as the deliverables and their timing will be different for DBB than for D&C.
A BIM Object/Element Matrix will show the evolution of the architectural spatial model as it is refined during the design process as the project progresses. As materials and components are selected, generic assemblies are assigned material properties, sizes, sustainability credits tracked, and other specific component information defined to clearly identify building features such as walls, floors, roofs, doors, and windows. The program space requirements is modelled in the spatial model and validated electronically against the PFD at each stage of the project and submitted with the required deliverables.
Design visualisation for communication and functional analysis
BIM provides the opportunity to build a virtual building and to virtually test that building for functionality during design. This allows project stakeholders to see and understand design solutions that represents reality so they can work towards improving the building design before construction starts. The Design Team is encouraged to find efficiencies and uses for BIM to enhance communication for the project. At a minimum, the model should be integrated into design reviews, review submittals, and 3D construction documentation views. Areas that benefit from the use of 3D imagery and fly-throughs during the design process and during construction are identified and noted in the BEP(s).
Visualisation tools refer to animated models, fly-throughs, static 3D renderings, 4D process sequencing, and other techniques to assist decision making and comprehension. It should be noted that even though the BIM models contain most of the source information needed for visualisation, they may need further refinement in specific animation and visualisation software to accomplish the intended results.
During design, special consideration is given to occupant and maintenance issues. Consider the following uses of BIM for communication purposes and record those selected in the Project BIM Brief. The purpose, intended users, nature (static or animated), level of detail (outline, photorealistic, etc.) and scope of each should also be defined.
- Views of the building exterior.
- Enhanced visualisations for presentation purposes using photorealistic rendering software and photomontages of the proposed design in the context of the existing street or landscape.
- Studies of overshadowing of adjoining properties at times nominated by the planning authority.
- Views of the building interior.
- Simulated videos of the building, eg. ‘walk bys’, ‘fly overs’, ‘walk throughs’, ‘fly throughs’.
- Walking distances between major functional spaces.
- Sightlines for supervision and security purposes.
- Process areas where timing and volume may be problematic, eg. areas used for queuing, waiting and delivery.
- Supply, Processing and Distribution (SPD) of materials.
- Major building equipment clearance reservations for operation, repair, maintenance and replacement using graphics or animations.
- Colour coding of floorplates for determining space function types, department locations, circulation zones and floor areas.